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NUCLEAR FALLOUT                          updated: April 14 2012

Ecuador had the least nuclear fallout from bomb testing (1945 to 1958) anywhere on earth. The U.S. Public Health Service publication RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH DATA (Jan. 1960, near the apex of atmospheric nuclear bomb testing) compiled comparative figures on the total daily intake of Stontium 90 by various countries. The comparative figures are as follows:

United States 15.4 microcuries (mc)

Germany 13.0 mc

United Kingdom 9.8 mc

Vietnam 8.3 mc

Japan 7.8 mc

Peru 2.8 mc

Ecuador 1.2 mc.

 

 

Dr. Norman French from the University of California published in December 1960 an article on the Amount of Strontium Radioactivity in Ecuador published in Ciencia y Naturaleza, the journal of the Natural Sciences Institute at Unversidad Central in Quito.

 

The Atomic Energy Commision (AEC) analyzed 45 samples of soil and 19 samples of beef cattle bone in 1958 and reported the following figures for Rainfall and Strontium 90 fallout:

 

Manta (Coast) 243 millimeters (mm), 1.8 mc (per square mile)

Esmeraldas (Coast) 822 mm, 1.6 mc

San Lorenzo 2797 mm, 1.6 mc

Quevedo 2484 mm, 5.5 mc

Santo Domingo 4015 mm, 2.7 mc

Aloag (Plateau) 940 mm, 1.6 mc

Quito 1364 mm, 1.4 mc

Calderon 960 mm, 0.6 mc

Guayllabamba 565 mm, 1.4 mc

Otavalo 1029 mm, 2.1 mc, Ibarra 743 m, 1.9 mc

Latacunga 272 mm, 1.4 mc, Ambato 472 mm, 0.7 mc

Banos 1249 mm, 0.5 mc

Puyo (Amazon, a short distance from Banos which is in the Andes) 3871 mm, 12.6 mc

 

The east side of the Andes mountains in the Amazon jungle has the highest levels of fallout proving that fallout moves from east to west and that high mountains block Strontium 90 and therefore other fallout particles from being deposited in the soil.

 

  1. Strontium-90 in Ecuador

Samples of bone and soil collected in 1958 show highest values for Sr90 in the tropical region on the east side of the Andes. Lowest values are found in the high central valley, where samples used in estimating world-wide distribution of fallout were collected. If the major fallout deposition occurs in the interior of the South American continent, such estimates for these latitudes may be low by as much as a factor of ten. Although there has apparently been greater Sr90 deposition in regions of greater rainfall, analysis of data from 16 locations fails to show a significant correlation between rainfall and fallout.

 

 

 

1958 had the 2nd most (116) above ground nuclear test explosions, 2nd only to 1962 (178).

 

At the near apex of atmospheric nuclear testing the inter-andean plateau and west coast of Ecuador had the lowest fallout of any nation on Earth. Coastal Ecuador is hot and humid and thus unhealthy in the long run (nice for short visits).

 

 

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Highest level of radioactive cesium in San Francisco-area milk since August 2011  (energy news)

UCB Milk Sampling Results                                                                      

Source: University of California Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering

02/16/2012:

  • Cs-134 @ 0.052 Bq/L
  • Cs-137 @ 0.115 Bq/L

0.167 Bq/L of radioactive cesium = 4.526 picocuries/L (1 Bq = 27.1 picocuries)

The EPA Maximum Contaminant Level for radioactive cesium in milk is 3 picocuries/L: 

4.526 picocuries is 66% over the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level of 3.0 picocuries per liter.

 

These are the highest cesium levels detected by UCB since at least August 2011

 

EPA, Environmental Protection Agency figures:

Oakland had 2.5 pcuries per liter Cs-134 in the milk on april 13 2011 according to EPA measurements.
 

Oakland also had 3.7 pcuries per liter I-131 in the milk on april 13 2011.

 

“EPA lumps these gamma and beta emitters together under one collective MCL [Maximum Contaminant Level], so if you’re seeing cesium-137 in your milk or water, the MCL is 3.0 picocuries per liter; if you’re seeing iodine-131, the MCL is 3.0; if you’re seeing cesium-137 and iodine-131, the MCL is still 3.0.” -Forbes.com

 

 

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At Fukushima There Are 3 Nuclear Reactor Meltdowns

Gundersen: 20 percent of young girls living in some areas around Fukushima Daiichi will get cancer from radiation over their lifetimes   energy news enenews.com

It's really the young girls and mothers who will have a statistically dramatic increase, something to the tune of 1 out of every 5 young girls in that kind of radiation field [some areas 30-40km from Fukushima Daiichi] will get cancer over their lifetime…

 

Nuclear industry analysts Arnie and Maggie Gundersen of Fairewinds Energy Education (non-profit) discuss the similarities between the BWR Mark 1 reactors at Fukushima Daiichi and Vermont Yankee.                                                       

                                                   

The Gundersens also discuss the issue of federal pre-emption in the NRC’s decision to approve VY’s license renewal, the Vermont Legislature’s decision that VY is not reliable and therefore should shut down, and Judge Murtha’s decision to allow the plant to continue to operate over the state’s objections.

 

 

Dr. Chris Busby, well known world radiation expert, tells us that with his sophisticated equipment, there were areas in Tokyo that were 1000 times higher, than the exclusion zone (evacuation zone) in Chernobyl (30 kilometers or 19 miles).               

 

Worse than cesium, plutonium was found more than one mile away from nuclear reactors, which suggests the plutonium containment plans failed.

 

Plutonium

The Ministry of Education and Science also found plutonium isotopes at six locations in the survey area and determined peak amounts of plutonium-238 of 4 becquerels per square meter (Bq/m2; in Namie soil) along with 15 Bq/m2 of plutonium-239+240 (soil in Minamisoma).

 

 

Although Japanese authorities in the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology aren’t sure if the Pu-239/240 levels were from Fukushima or global fallout, they do believe that plutonium-238 – which is extremely genotoxic, has a half-life of 88 years and readily binds with oxygen to form plutonium-oxide (pu238o2) – found at six locations is indeed from Fukushima.

 

 

Note: (Plutonium oxide is highly toxic to humans, especially via inhalation. source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2012-03-21.)

 

 

Also note: (The most common form of plutonium is plutonium oxide which is virtually insoluble. The behavior of plutonium oxide in the body varies with the way in which it is taken. If one drinks or eats it, a very large percentage of it will be eliminated from the body quite rapidly in body wastes. If plutonium oxide is inhaled, part of it, usually between 20 and 60 percent depending upon such things as the size of the particles, is retained in the lung.

 

 

But it (plutonium) is a long-lived alpha emitting material that, if it gets inside the body, could deposit in the bones or in lungs and possibly increase an individual's cancer risk. Therefore, very low limits were established for exposure to plutonium.) source: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commision (NRC), Fact Sheet on Plutonium

 

 

According to a document by the U.S. EPA produced in 1990 titled ‘Toxicology Profile for Plutonium: ‘Average fallout levels in soils in the United States are about 2 millicuries (mCi)/square kilometer (about 0.4 square miles) for plutonium-239 and 0.05 mCi/square kilometer for plutonium-238.’ This translates to 74 Bq/m2 for plutonium 239 and 1.85 Bq/m2 for plutonium 238.                                                   

Source: Andrew Kishner, posted at Paul Langley's Nuclear History Blog

 

 

+++

 

Tokyo has 35 million people. In a year or two all of Northern Japan could become uninhabitable because there is no way to stop the process once sufficient materials work their way down into the earth and the water table, which they’ve already started to do.

 

 

The Japanese Government response to this situation; It raised exposure level for adults and children twenty fold. It has increased from one millisieverts to 20 millisieverts. Twenty millisieverts matches maximum allowable exposure for nuclear industry workers.

It's only 149.5 miles or 240.6 km from Tokyo to Fukushima.

 

 

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Germany will shut down all their nuclear reactors by 2022

Wikipedia: Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Germany has permanently shut down eight of its reactors and pledged to close the rest by 2022.[1]                                                                              

 

 

The Italian Government put a one-year moratorium on its plans to revive nuclear power, following the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents.[22]

 

A further Italian nuclear power referendum was held on 13 June 2011, with a 54.79% turnout and 94% of the votes rejecting the use of Nuclear Power,[23] leading to cancellation of any future nuclear power plants planned during the previous years.

                                                                                         

 

Switzerland and Spain have banned the construction of new reactors.[3]                                             

                                                         

Japan’s prime minster has called for a dramatic reduction in Japan’s reliance on nuclear power.[4]                                                       

 

Taiwan’s president did the same.                                                    

 

Mexico has sidelined construction of 10 reactors in favor of developing natural-gas-fired plants.[5]                                                             

 

Belgium is considering phasing out its nuclear plants, perhaps as early as 2015.

 

 

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Did you know?

In September, 1996 the United Nations General Assembly voted to adopt the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits all "nuclear weapons test explosions and all other nuclear explosions." As of September 1998, 150 nations had signed the treaty, and 21 nations had ratified it. Notable exceptions are India and Pakistan, both of which conducted nuclear tests in May, 1998. 
 

Can we now Unite as Nations and ban all nuclear energy

after the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters and transition

to solar, wind and geothermal energy sources using fossil

fuels transitionally?

 

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CALIFORNIA

Good News!

The San Onofre nuclear power plant has been shut down. On June 7, 2013, Southern California Edison announced it would "permanently retire" Unit 2 and Unit 3.

 

 
 


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